This article specifically covers the cereals for diabetes type 2 but generally, the people with type
1 Diabetes can also take benefit from it.
Diet therapy for diabetes mellitus (DM) involves limiting the calorie content of meals, reducing the GI of foods. Most cereals meet these requirements. Their benefits for diabetics are obvious. Nourishing, nutritious, they satisfy the hunger for a long time, they are sources of carbohydrates necessary for the body. Are all cereals useful, what cereals can be used for type 2 diabetes, every patient should know this?
WHAT IS GI?
The glycemic index is understood as the index of a product, which shows how much the level of glucose in the blood will increase after its consumption. The sooner sugar rises after a particular product, the higher its GI.
WHAT IS THE SAFE INDEX FOR DIABETES?
Indicators are calculated on a scale from 0 to 100 units or points:
- low GI – from 0 to 40;
- medium – from 40 to 60;
- high – 60-100.
The GI index is influenced by the content of carbohydrates in the product. If the food contains simple (fast) carbohydrates, it provokes a sharp rise in blood sugar. Complex carbohydrates, on the other hand, provide a gradual rise in blood sugar and optimal insulin release.
It is important for a person with diabetes that blood glucose rises smoothly. Therefore, products with a low GI (less than 40 units) are preferred for him. Medium GI products (40-60 units) are allowed only in limited quantities. That is why, when choosing which cereals are possible with type 2 diabetes, their GI should be taken into account.
Cereals for diabetes type 2
Many bowls of cereal contain complex carbohydrates that are valuable for a balanced diet. Porridge allowed for type 2 diabetes mellitus can be cooked from the cereals of the following cereals:
- barley (pearl barley, barley);
- oats (oatmeal, rolled oats);
- buckwheat (buckwheat);
- millet (millet)
With good tolerance for diabetics, you can cook side dishes of peas, lentils, and other legumes. All of these foods are low in GI.
Given the calorie content of grains and the presence of starch in them, they should not be overly carried away. It is allowed to consume no more than 1 serving per day, preferably in the first half of the day, in order to be able to adequately consume the calories received.
The usefulness of porridge also depends on how the cereal is processed and prepared. Which cereals are good for type 2 diabetes should be considered separately.
2 types of cereals are obtained from barley grains – pearl barley (this is a whole, but polished and polished grain) and barley (crushed grain). Barley cereals contain about 87% starch, which is why they have to be cooked for a long time.
It is noticed that the GI of viscous (thick) cereals is higher than that of semi-liquid ones. Adding milk or butter to pearl barley or barley porridge in type 2 diabetes is undesirable, as it also increases the glycemic index.
Table 1. Dependence of GI on the method of processing and preparation of cereals
|Groats||Processing method||Glycemic index|
|Barley||Milk pearl barley||50|
|Barley on water||22|
|Barley on water||35|
The minimum GI for barley on water. Thanks to this, pearl barley porridge in type 2 diabetes will help to reduce weight, from an excess of which diabetics often suffer.
The high level of fiber in barley grains improves insulin sensitivity, normalizes fatty, and other metabolic processes.
Crushed, non-crushed, rolled groats and flakes are obtained from oats. Health professionals believe that for type 2 diabetes, oatmeal should be cooked from whole grains or large flakes. The coarser the grinding of the grain, the more fiber it contains, which is necessary to normalize metabolism.
|Groats||Processing method||Glycemic index|
|Oatmeal with milk||60|
|Oatmeal on the water||40|
Oatmeal is rich in easily digestible proteins and fats, complex carbohydrates, amino acids, B vitamins, therefore it is a useful dish in the diet of a diabetic.
Buckwheat is rich in complex carbohydrates, causes a long-lasting feeling of fullness, and promotes a slow increase in blood sugar. Buckwheat porridge for type 2 diabetes should be boiled in water. Loose porridge has a higher GI than semi-liquid. The value of buckwheat for patients with diabetes lies in its rich and balanced mineral and vitamin composition (100 g contains 50% of the daily iron requirement, there are other macronutrients).
Calorie content is 343 kcal per 100 g, protein content – 12.6 g, fat – 2.6 g, carbohydrates – 68 g.
Buckwheat has an average GI of 50, so you can eat it no more than 1-2 times a week.
Despite the high-calorie content and the number of carbohydrates, millet porridge is allowed for type 2 diabetes. It is rich in B and PP vitamins, amino acids, omega-6 polyunsaturated fatty acids, and fiber.
|Groats||Processing method||Glycemic index|
|Millet on the water||50|
Due to the high-calorie content and GI, millet porridge can appear on the diabetic’s menu no more than once a week. It contains oxalic acid, which is why people with gastric and intestinal ulcers are contraindicated.
WHAT CEREALS ARE NOT ALLOWED?
People who monitor their blood sugar levels should remember which cereals should not be eaten with type 2 diabetes:
- from all types of wheat groats, including semolina;
- any instant cereals (muesli, small cereals);
- from white rice.
The glycemic index of white polished rice is 70 units, parboiled rice – 60, milk rice porridge – 70. Rice has a lower calorie content than other cereals, but it has few vegetable fibers, a lot of starch, and the sugar level from it rises rapidly. You can replace white rice with other varieties – brown, brown, wild.
WHAT ARE THEY WITH?
It is also important what to combine the allowed side dishes with. In diabetes, these should be fiber-rich foods that can lower GI:
- fresh herbs;
- raw vegetable salads (no mayonnaise);
- mild, unsweetened, and low-fat sauces.
Omega-3s Reduce Food Cravings
Replenishment of Omega-3 deficiency reduces appetite and constant food cravings, reduces body fat, and regulates weight and mood. Omega-3 enhances the feeling of fullness after eating and is involved in the regulation of the hormones ghrelin and leptin.
In an experiment published in the British Journal of Nutrition, it was found that obese people had lower levels of EPA and DHA compared to the normal weight group. And people with high rates more often had a normal weight, waist, and hips!
Omega acids extend the life
One large study, published in the Lancet, involved over 11,000 people. All of them had suffered a heart attack within 3 months prior to the study. The experiment lasted 42 months. The results showed that the risk of death in people taking fish oil and vitamin E was reduced!
Fish oil reduces inflammation, stabilizes nerve cells, and helps fight blood clots. During menopause, taking omega can reduce hormonal shifts and mood swings.
Fish oil also helps balance emotions and mood in older adults, relieve symptoms of depression, and even improve cognitive performance.
Calcium and magnesium
Calcium is critical for building bone strength, but it turns out that magnesium is too. In a Yale University study, magnesium supplements increased bone density in adolescent girls.
Calcium absorption is directly dependent on vitamin D, and magnesium helps to concentrate and maintain focus for a long time, plus it supports a healthy nervous system and a healthy response to stress.
Working dosage: 700-1300 mg calcium and 240-410 mg magnesium per day.
Best Nuts for Diabetes
With diabetes mellitus, many foods have to be excluded from the diet, therefore, the menu must be thought out in such a way as to get enough nutrients and trace elements from the foods allowed for consumption.
Nuts are useful for diabetes, their use helps to lower blood sugar, and also reduces the level of bad cholesterol in the blood, which is deposited on the walls of blood vessels and contributes to the development of atherosclerosis.
First, you need to figure out which nuts can be used for diabetes and which should not be consumed. Nuts are well suited for diabetics because they contain a lot of protein, vegetable fats and at the same time very few carbohydrates. Studies have shown that consuming 50 grams of this product every day for 3 months reduces the risk of complications.
Nuts Good for Diabetics to Eat
The most useful nuts to eat for diabetes are:
- Brazilian nut;
- Pine nuts.
Is Peanut good for diabetes
Peanuts will bring the maximum benefit in diabetes mellitus if you eat up to 20 nuts raw a day. Its use helps to lower blood glucose levels as well as lower cholesterol.
The medicinal properties of the product are well studied, it contains:
- B vitamins – essential for the nervous system and are involved in active wound healing and metabolism;
- vitamins E and D – restore skin and hair;
- selenium – an antioxidant that slows down the aging process;
- amino acids – strengthen the nervous system.
Peanuts also contain selenium, sodium, calcium, potassium and phosphorus. There is no cholesterol in peanuts, so the risk of atherosclerosis is reduced.
The glycemic index of peanuts is 13. Caloric content per 100 grams of product is 620 kcal. The recommended dose per day is 30 grams.
Is Almond good for diabetes
Almond grains contain:
- vitamins of group B, E;
- large amounts of magnesium, potassium, phosphorus, selenium;
- unsaturated acids, amino acids.
All these substances are actively involved in supporting the normal functioning of the brain, heart, blood vessels, and prevent a sharp jump in blood glucose levels after eating.
The high fiber content and the absence of starch and cholesterol contribute to the normalization of digestion. When consumed in food, the sensitivity of the receptors to insulin increases.
There are two types of this nut: sweet and bitter. Sweet almonds are used in confectionery, baked goods, and marzipan. It is also consumed raw. And bitter almonds are not accepted for food.
The glycemic index of almonds is 10, and its calorie content per 100 grams of product is 640 kcal.
Despite all the advantages of almonds, you should not abuse them, it is advisable to eat no more than 20 pieces per day.
Is Pine nut good for diabetes
They should be consumed because of the mass of useful nutritional properties.
Pine nuts contain:
- trace elements of copper, manganese, zinc, as well as a large amount of iodine;
- vitamin B1, which improves memory, mental activity, slows down aging;
- tryptophan, which improves sleep, helps eliminate insomnia.
The glycemic index is 15, and the calorie content is 670 kcal per 100 grams.
The cholesterol content is 0, therefore, pine nuts are recommended for use in diabetes. The recommended dose is 50 grams per day.
Is hazelnut good for diabetes
Hazelnuts are hazelnut fruits that everyone has become accustomed to seeing on cakes and pastries since childhood. Its energy value surpasses even dark chocolate; a small amount of these nuts can fill you with energy for the whole day.
It is recommended to eat several hazelnut kernels every day – this reduces the risk of developing vascular disease.
Hazelnut kernels contain:
- microelements and vitamins of groups B, C, E. All these substances are necessary for the normal functioning of the body;
- fatty acids, which are necessary during active physical activity;
- potassium, thanks to which the nut improves the work of the heart muscle.
The nut contains a lot of easily digestible protein. The glycemic index of hazelnuts is only 15, with a calorie content of 620 kcal per 100 grams.
It is worth remembering that this nut can be an allergen.
Hazelnuts are not recommended for exacerbations of diseases of the gastrointestinal tract.
Is Brazilian nut good for diabetes
Another very tasty and healthy product for people with diabetes mellitus is the Brazil nut.
These grains contain important trace elements:
- selenium, which is involved in metabolic processes, enhances immunity;
- phosphorus – improves the condition of bone tissue.
- fatty acids Omega 6, Omega 3
- Fiber, which is contained in Brazil nuts, improves metabolism, has a good effect on the digestive system.
The glycemic index is 25, with a calorie content of 655 kcal. Eating Brazil nuts promotes rapid glucose uptake and lowers glucose.
Is cashew nuts good for diabetes
It will not be superfluous to include cashews in the diet for diabetes, as they are saturated with proteins, carbohydrates, vitamins. They contain natural sugar, starch, fiber, which is necessary for good bowel function.
Cashews have a complex effect on the entire body:
- The consumption of these nuts promotes a smooth decrease in blood sugar and the active absorption of free glucose by the muscles.
- The immune defense is enhanced.
For overweight people, it is better to limit intake to 15 grams per day. It is better to eat cashews raw since a significant proportion of nutrients are lost during processing.
Cashews do not cause allergic reactions, but it is best to consult your doctor before introducing them into your diet.
Is Walnut good for diabetes
With diabetes mellitus, you need to monitor the level of blood sugar and cholesterol so that this level is not above normal. Walnut helps to lower blood glucose levels, and due to its low glycemic index – 15 – is suitable for diabetics’ diet. Despite such a low glycemic index, the calorie content is 650 kcal.
Eating a few walnut kernels can help you stay full for a couple of hours. Walnut kernels have a beneficial effect on metabolism. They contain iodine, vitamin C, unsaturated fats. It is recommended to eat no more than 5 kernels per day.
Your doctor can advise you on a recipe for a healthy salad or porridge addition. The patient’s task is to eat fractionally (in small portions, but often), monitor blood sugar levels, and follow other recommendations of the endocrinologist.
People with allergies need to be careful with this product, as side reactions from the body are possible.